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Dopning utanför idrotten – individualisering och muskulösa skönhetsideal: En studie av dopning i grundskola, gymnasium och på gym i Kalmar kommun

Doping outside sport – individualization and muscular body ideals: A Study of doping use in elementary schools, high schools and fitness centers in Kalmar Municipality
  • David Hoff
Publiceringsår: 2013
Språk: Svenska
Sidor: 1-24
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum
Volym: 4
Dokumenttyp: Artikel i tidskrift
Förlag: Malmö University;

Abstract english

The use of performance enhancing drugs, especially anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has emerged as a social problem outside competitive sports, linked to substance abuse and crime. The purpose of this article is to analyze the use of doping and attitudes to doping outside the competitive sports context in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, so¬cio-economic status, and branch of sport. The article is based on a survey study carried out in Kalmar Municipality at elementary schools (age=appr. 14; n=383), high schools (age=appr. 16; n=208) and fitness centers (n=327). The results showed that 1% of the girls and 2% of boys at elementary school, and 2% of girls and boys at high school, reported use of banned substances. 5% of the girls and 15% of the boys at high school had been of¬fered illegal substances. At fitness centers, 4% of the women and 5% of the men reported doping use, most commonly in the age group 31-35 (15%). Gender differences were small¬er than previous studies would suggest. Ethnic and socio-economic factors had only minor effects on prevalence of doping, which was more common among individuals who practiced strength sports and martial arts. Regarding attitudes towards doping, a large proportion of the pupils at elementary schools (45%) and students at high schools (56%) claimed that it is up to the individual to decide whether or not to use doping substances. The results are discussed from the perspective of individualization processes in society and in connection to influences from muscular body ideals, where doping together with work-out are analyzed as effective means for body transformations in individual (body-)identity projects.


  • Social Work
  • doping outside sport
  • anabolic androgenic steroids
  • AAS
  • individual body identity projects
  • muscular body ideals


  • ISSN: 2000-088X
E-post: david [dot] hoff [at] soch [dot] lu [dot] se



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